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Punjab is Haryana's neighboring state, Haryana having being carved out of Punjab in 1966. Chandigarh is the joint capital of both the states. Enterprise and endeavor, these two words symbolize the essential spirit of the people of Punjab. For over 50 years since independence, the state has earned its epithet: 'Granary of India' through the enterprising spirit, and untiring toil of its people. Its growth rate is amongst the highest in the country, clearly reflecting the progressive economy of the state. With a 58% literacy rate, Punjab has the highest per capita income of all the states in India. Today's Punjab has become a land of boundless opportunities, offering great advantages for business, trade and industry. The major cities in Punjab are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar and Patiala.

Location: Punjab is situated in the northwest of India, bordered by Pakistan on the west, the Indian states of Jammu & Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on its northeast, Haryana and Rajasthan to its south. Find Panjab on the globe at 29’ 30’’ N to 32’ 32’’ N latitude and 73’ 55 E to 76’ 50 E longitude.

Area: 50,362 square kilometers (Punjab occupies 1.54 % of India’s total geographical area.)

Population: 23.51 million (1999),   Rural: 16.56 million (70.45 )%,   Urban: 6.95 million (29.55 )%

Languages: Punjabi and Hindi.  Many people are fluent in English and Urdu.

State Tree: Shisham

State Bird: Baaz (Eastern Goshawk)

State Animal: Black Buck or Kala Hiran is a graceful antelope, with a striking color and spiraled horns. The fawn’s coat is yellowish but it  turns black at maturity. It is found in the plains and avoids forests and hilly tracks. Mostly found in herds of 20-30, large herds may number several hundreds. With a keen eyesight and speed, it responds to alarm call by leaps and bounds.

Major Features: Most of Punjab is a fertile plain; toward the southeast one finds semi-arid and desert landscape; a belt of undulating hills extends along the northeast at the foot of the Himalayas. Four rivers, the Ravi, Beas, Sutluj and Ghaggar flow across the state in a southwesterly direction. They have numerous small and seasonal tributaries. In addition, Panjab is irrigated by an extensive canal system. A barrage built in 1953 on the confluence of rivers Sutluj and Beas near Harike town resulted in the creation of Harike lake. The Harike wetland is a major attraction for migratory birds in winter.

Climate: The state of Punjab has four seasons:
1. Summer (Mar to Jun) when temperature rises as high as 48 deg C in June
2. Rainy season (Jul to Sep); Annual rainfall 96 cm  sub-mountain region and 58 cm in the plains
3. Autumn (Oct to Nov), the most pleasant season
4. Winter (Dec to Feb) Temperature goes down as low as 0 deg C in January.

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