Haryana is a small state in north India. It has a total of 81 cities and towns. It has 6,759 villages. For administrative purpose the state is divided into four divisions - Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hissar. There are 19 districts, 47 sub-divisions, 67 tehsils, 45 sub-tehsils and 116 blocks. Haryana is situated in the north between 27 deg 37' to 30 deg 35' latitude and between 74 deg 28' to 77 deg 36' longitude. Haryana has Uttar Pradesh (UP) on its eastern border, Punjab on its western border, Uttranchal, Himachal Pradesh & Shivalik Hills on its northern border and Delhi, Rajasthan and Aravali Hills on its southern border. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 ft to 900 ft above the sea level. An area of 1,553 sq km is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.
1. Shivalik Hills: altitude varying between 900 to 2300 meters. These hills are the source of the rivers like Saraswati, Ghaggar, Tangri and Markanda. Parts of Panchkula, Ambala and Yamunanagar Online casino districts.
2. Ghaggar Yamuna Plain: Divided in 2 parts - the higher one is called 'Bangar' and the lower 'Khadar'. This alluvium plain is made up of sand, clay, silt and hard calcareous balls like gravel known locally as kankar.
3. Semi-desert sandy plain: This area includes the districts of Sirsa and parts of Hissar, Mahendergarh, Fatehbad, Bhiwani and shares border with Rajasthan.
4. Aravali hills: This is a dry irregular hilly area.
Area of Haryana: 44,212 sq km Population: 2,10,83,000 (2001 Census)
Climate of Haryana is similar to other states of India lying in the northern plains. It is very hot in summer (up to a high of 50 deg Celsius) and cold in winters (down to a low of 1 deg Celsius). The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is varied, with Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest. About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season (July-September) and sometimes causes local flooding.
Rivers of Haryana: The river Yamuna flows along its eastern boundary. The ancient Saraswati river was thought to have flowed throw Haryana but it has now disappeared. The river Ghaggar is its main seasonal river. It rises up in the outer Himalayas between the Yamuna and the Sutluj and enters Haryana near Pinjore, district Panchkula. Passing through Ambala and Hissar it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs a course of 290 miles before disappearing in the deserts of Rajasthan. The Markanda river's ancient name was Aruna. A seasonal stream like the Ghaggar, it originates from the lower Shivalik hills and enters Haryana near Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells up into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati. An important tributary is the Tangri. The Sahibi originates in the Mewat hills near Jitgarh and Manoharpur in Rajasthan. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries, it reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar and Patan. On reaching Rohtak it branches off into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into the Yamuna. There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills ?Indori, Dohan and Kasavati and they all flow northwards from the south.
Transport System: The main transport systems in Haryana are Roads and Railway.
Roads: Haryana has a total length of 29,524 kilometers of paved (metalled) roads; making it one of the most well connected states in whole of Asia. Every village of the state is now linked with paved roads. The state government proposes to construct Express highway and free ways for speedier vehicular traffic. Government encourages private sector investment in this sector for up gradation of roads, construction of ROB and BOT basis including four lane ROB. The length of the national highways passing through Haryana is 665 km. The following five national highways pass through Haryana.
1. National Highway 1 (NH1) Delhi - Karnal - Kurukshetra - Ambala - Amritsar. Famous as the GT Road.
2. National Highway 10 (NH10) Delhi - Rohtak - Hansi - Hissar - Fatehbad - Sirsa - Ferozepur.
3. National Highway 21 (NH21) Chandigarh - Panchkula - Pinjore - Kalka - Shimla.
4. National Highway 2 (NH2) Delhi - Faridabad - Mathura - Agra - Mumbai (Bombay)
5. National Highway 8 (NH8) Delhi - Gurgaon - Jaipur - Mumbai (Bombay)
Details of Highways and roads:
- National Highways: 656 km
- State Highways: 3135 km
- District roads: 1587 km
- Rural and other roads: 17190 km
Haryana Roadways: The total number of buses plied by Haryana Roadways is 3,411. There are a total of 82 Bus Stands and 20 Bus Depots. About 10,75,000 passengers travel by these buses everyday. Haryana was the first state in India to introduce luxury video coaches.
Railway System: Haryana is well connected on the rail network. Under the National Capital Region (NCR) scheme there is already a proposal to provide rail corridor connecting towns around Delhi linking the major satellite towns like Faridabad, Gurgaon, Kundli, Bahadurgarh etc. Similarly, there is also a proposal to provide rapid mass transportation system between Delhi and these satellite towns. The main railway routes passing through Haryana are:
- Amritsar - Delhi
- Rewari - Ahemdabad
- Bhiwani - Rohtak-Delhi
- Ambala - Ferozepur
- Delhi - Ferozepur
- Kalka - Jodhpur
- Kalka - Howrah
- Amritsar - Howrah
- Delhi - Shimla
Water: All the 6,759 villages of Haryana are now provided with safe drinking water facilities. In addition there are 68 partial urban water supply schemes. Water is available as Haryana is a land of canals. It has tapped its ground water resources to maximum. Life irrigation schemes, pump sets, and water channels supply adequate amount of water to the fields and industries. The State has already launched an ambitious program of brick lining the water courses. The Sutluj-Yamuna Link canal (SYL) will further add to Haryana's prosperity.