Panchkula was formed as the 17th district of Haryana on 15th August, 1995. It comprises of two sub divisions and two Tehsils named Panchkula and Kalka. It has 264 villages out of which 12 villages are uninhabited and 10 villages wholly merged in towns or treated as census towns according to census 1991. There are four towns in the district named Kalka, Panchkula, Pinjore and HMT Pinjore. Area of the district is 816 sq km and the total population is 3,19,398 out of which 1,73,557 are males and 1,45,841 females. The male literacy in the district is 61.8% whereas of the females is 46%.
PHYSICAL ASPECTS: Panchkula is surrounded by Himachal Pradesh in the north and north east by Ambala district in the east by Kurukshetra district in the south and Punjab and Union Territory of Chandigarh in the west.
Panchkula district has a sub tropical continental monsoon climate where we find seasonal rhythm, hot summer, cool winter, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature. In winter frost sometimes occurs during December and January. The district also receives occasional winter rains from the western disturbance. The rainfall is generally restricted to rolling plain in north and northeast a doom in Pinjore area and flood plain along the Ghaggar river. Morni hills constitute the highest point of the district as well as of Haryana.
The important rivers/streams of the district are Ghaggar, Sirsa nadi, Kaushalya etc. Generally the slope of the district is from north east to south west. in which direction most of the nadi/rivers rain fed torrents flow down and spread much gravels and pebbles in their beds. Only the Sirsa Nadi, in Kalka Tehsil, flows towards northwest through a u arrow halt of shivalik tract. The district is devoid of any perennial river. The soils in the district are mainly light loam (seoti) piedmont (Ghar and Kandi), Shivalik (pahar), silt clay (Naili and chhachhra Dakar) etc.
The under ground water in the district occurs under confirmed and semi-confirmed conditions which is generally fresh and suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes. The under ground water level is generally high in the southern parts and low in north and northeast which is hilly tract. The district lies in a region where earthquakes of moderate to high intensity had been felt in the fast. Being situated to Himalayan boundary fault zones it is prone to earthquakes.
The district has a favorable climate for the growth of rich and abundant vegetation due to reasonably good rainfall and elevation. Shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo), Kikar (Acacia nilotica) and Mango (Mangifera indica) are the important tree species grown in the plains. Safeda (eucalyptus hybrid) has been introduced since 1963 in forest areas as well as on private lands. The natural vegetation is mainly of forest growth in its degradation stages. Tropical dry and sub-tropical deciduous forests are found here.