Delhi, (including New Delhi, the national capital), is a state in northern India. It occupies an area of 1,483 sq km with a population of approximately 14 million. The principal spoken languages are Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, and English. Delhi derives its historic importance from its geographical position in India, occupying a location between the Aravali Hills to the southwest and the Yamuna river on whose western banks it stands. This enabled it to dominate the old trade routes from northwest India to the plains of the Ganges. Delhi is surrounded on three sides by Haryana and has Uttar Pradesh on its eastern border.
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Delhi, has seen the rise and fall of many empires which have left behind a plethora of monuments that the grandeur and glory of bygone ages. A city which traces its history to Mahabharata, the great epic tale of wars fought between estranged cousins, the Kauravas and the Pandavas for the city of Indraprastha.
Mughals ruled Delhi in succession starting from Qutab-ub-din to Khiljis, Tughlaqs . The city of Delhi passed on to the hands of the British in 1803 AD. It was in 1911, when the capital of British empire was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, that Delhi got its present prestige. After independence also, a kind of autonomy was conferred on the capital but it largely remained a chief commissioners regime. In 1956 Delhi was converted into a Union territory and the chief commissioner was replaced by a Lt. Governor. In 1991, the national capital territory Act was passed by the parliament and a system of diarchy was introduced under which, the elected Government was given wide powers; except law and order which remained with the central Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993.
New Delhi, the capital of India, sprawled over the west bank of the river Yamuna is one of the fastest growing cities in India. Historically, the city has long since been the foremost in political importance with successive dynasties choosing it as their seat of power, between the 13th and the 17th centuries. Remnants of the glorious past survive as important monuments in different parts of the city.
The myriad faces of the city are simply fascinating. In some places it remains a garden city, tree lined with beautiful parks, but in some places it is crowded with heavy traffic. Turbaned Sikhs, colorfully dressed women from Rajasthan and Gujarat working in offices, Muslim shopkeepers along Chandni Chowk in Old Delhi, Tibetans and Ladakhis in the street stalls along Janpath and Kashmiris in the handicraft emporia around Connaught Place, all add to the cosmopolitan feel of the city. Soaring skyscrapers, posh residential colonies and bustling commercial complexes can be seen along with the ancient historical monuments. Its boutiques and shopping arcades offer access to a wealth of traditional and contemporary crafts, from all over the country. Old Delhi looks entirely different from the more modern New Delhi and south Delhi areas.
Economy: Part of the Delhi Metro completed in 2004. Delhi is one of the largest markets in the country despite its being smaller in population than Mumbai. This is primarily because the per capita income in Delhi is much higher than in other cities. Since the 1990s it has become the number one destination for all foreign direct investment. Many multinational companies have set up their Head quarters in Delhi and adjoining cities. The city is served by Indira Gandhi International Airport.
Educational Institutions: Delhi, being the capital of the country attracts students from all over India. It has a number of government and private colleges offering quality education in the fields of science, engineering, medicine, arts, law, management etc. Some prominent educational institutes are:
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University
Jamia Millia Islamia
Guru Gobind Singh University (also known as Indraprastha University)
The Indian Institute of Planning and Management
Famous sites in Delhi
Gurdwara Bangla Sahib
Markets in Delhi
Lajpat Nagar Central Market